Monday, July 17, 2017

DNA Links Adopted Child to Jesuit Slave

DNA kits were one of the Christmas gifts I gave to my husband, Jerry, and my daughter Dana. I was in Cuba when an email was sent on April 12, 2017 to me by Judy Riffel, the lead genealogist for the Georgetown Memory Project. I arrived home on April 16th  which was Easter Sunday, so needless to say, I didn't check my email until the next day.

Judy stated a DNA kit I administered to D.J. was a match for Frank Campbell, a man who had been enslaved by the Jesuits of Georgetown and sold down river to a plantation owner in Louisiana. She also asked me if D. J. was a GU 272 descendant which refers to the 272 slaves sold and the name of the association that was formed by the descendants. To say I was stunned by this news would be an under-statement. 

I immediately sent Judy an email. I told her that D.J. was my daughter Dana Johnson and I gave her the kit for Christmas. Then I dropped the bomb: Dana is adopted!  Ordinarily, one would expect my child to be a GU 272 descendant because I am descendant. What are the odds that an adopted child who was born in California in 1971 would be a descendant of a GU 272 slave??? We are both GU 272 descendants but descend from different ancestors! My ancestors are Butlers and Dana's are Campbells. I learned of Dana's connection to Frank Campbell on April 17th, the same day an article by Rachel Swarms, published in the New York Times on April 17, 2016 which drew world-wide attention to Jesuit slave holdings in the USA.

Who is Frank Campbell? On March 12, 2017, Swarms wrote an article, "A Glimpse Into the Life of a Slave Sold to Save Georgetown," in the NYT. The article was about Frank Campbell who  was a part of the 1838 sale of  slaves to Jesse Batey. Frank's photo was discovered in a scrapbook that belonged to the Barrow family, a big-time slave-owning family. What is the significance of this photo? It is the only photo that exists of a Jesuit slave who was sold in 1838.

As soon as I learned of my daughter's connection to Frank Campbell, I asked Janette Birch, a member of the Butler Team, to assist me in researching the Campbells in California. I finally had a name to research! Janette sought assistance from Barbara Brazington, another Butler Team member, and a Campbell descendant was located in California.This Campbell is too old to be Dana's father but he has three sons. The father does not bear the Campbell name but his mother's maiden name is Campbell. Now all I need to do is to determine which of these sons was 20 years old in 1971. 

Another article was published about Frank Campbell on May 24, 2017, "Echoes of Injustices: The image of a slave brings closure to a Terrebonne parish family." This article provided me with the names of the descendants of Frank Campbell. My first reaction was to call, but I decided  a letter would be less intrusive. I picked one descendant to write who was featured in the article and on the TV news and sent a letter about my daughter and  her connection to their grandfather. I was a little anxious while I awaited a response. Finally, after an agonizing week, I received a response. The descendant agreed to make attempts to assist me in the search for Dana's father, but needed more information. I looked for my copies of the adoption documents and couldn't find them. They are around here somewhere, probably in one of the boxes in the garage where it  has been since my move to Spokane 12 years ago. I asked my daughter to send her copies and they are on their way. By the time this article is printed in the Digital Digest, I will have an answer. 


Saturday, January 21, 2017

Finding Nace Butler, Jr., the runaway slave

In November 1838, the Jesuits of Georgetown, sold 272 slaves to two plantation owners in Louisiana.  Fifteen of my family members, were sold and were shipped down river on the Katharine Jackson of Georgetown. My great-great-great- grandparents, Nace and Biby Butler, and their 13 children were on that ship  except one, Nace Butler, Jr.who ran away.

Our connection to the Jesuit slaves has been known for more than 12 years. It was first discovered in the spring of 2004 as the family was making plans for a reunion in New Orleans. I continued to look for Nace, Jr.,  having found a person I suspected was my ancestor buried in the St. Ignatius Church Cemetery, St. Mary's County, Maryland online on the church's website in 2007.  The website included photos of the church, St. Ignatius, and a list of the people buried in the cemetery.  An Ignatius Butler was listed on parchment in the church as well as Gladys Butler, Lucinda Butler and Johnston Butler.

The search for Nace, Jr. took on a new life after the Georgetown Memory Project(GMP) was formed. In November 2015, Richard Cellini, an alumnus of Georgetown University,  founded the GMP to identify the the slaves sold in 1838 and to located their living descendants. As a member of that organization a new search was launched, first by me and then by a member of the Butler Research Team. We came to the same conclusion: Ignatius Butler who is buried at  St. Ignatius is our Nace Butler, Jr., the runaway.

I thought that we were on the right track when an Ignatius "Nace" Butle along with a wife and children  was located on the 1870 census  in the St. Inigoes, St. Mary's County, Maryland.  His birth date was estimated to be 1818.  In the Jesuit Plantation Project records which include the profiles of the slaves, Nace Butler birth date is 1818.  

In December 2016, I was contacted by Glendon Stubbs, the great-great-great grandson of  Ignatius Butler.  He provided me with a descendant chart for Ignatius Butler constructed by Malissa Ruffner, a professional genealogist hired by the GMP. Her research confirmed what we found: Ignatius Butler is the runaway who was born in 1818 and died  



  to be continued

Sunday, May 29, 2016

Honoring Sgt. Malbert Montgomery Cooper

Today I placed some flowers and a flag on Sgt. Malbert Montgomery Cooper's grave.  He did not have a headstone for his grave when he was buried on May 2, 1979. It took six years of negotiations to get an government-issued marker thanks to the efforts of Veterans Service Director Chuck Elmore, Veterans Service Officer Nadel Barrett and me, Patricia Bayonne - Johnson, President of Eastern Washington Genealogical Society in Spokane, Washington.

On May 11, 2009, I went to Spokane Memorial Gardens, Cheney-Spokane to photograph the headstone to accompany an article I had written 
about Sgt. Cooper.  My husband I traveled to the cemetery and went to the office to get the location of the grave.  We wandered around the area where the marker should have been for an hour but couldn't find one. So we headed back to the office and the staff looked again  and gave us the bad news: Sgt. Cooper was buried without a headstone because he was buried by Public Assistance which would not pay for a headstone. They would only pay for the burial. But the good news was because Cooper had been in the military, the government would issue a headstone.  All I needed was his DD214 - his discharge papers.

I contacted Chuck Elmore by email, starting a process that would last six long years to get that government- issued headstone. I had two appointments with Elmore to discuss the documents and photos I had for Sgt. Cooper. Chuck knew all the places to be contacted, so he took over from there.

The matter was complicated because Sgt. Cooper did not have any relatives. He was married twice and the last woman had a son, but he had not been adopted by Cooper. It was difficult to find the paper work on Cooper but Chuck was successful. Then I got more bad news: I had to be the next of kin to apply for a government headstone. Well, I am not the next-of-kin; I am just an interested party trying to get the government to do the right thing. The man served his country and he deserved a headstone! That was the most ridiculous thing I ever heard  in my life! Chuck even talked to  Senator Patty Murray about it; the last response she got from the VA, was if we wanted a headstone we would have to take them to court.

Then Elmore hired Nadel Barrett, a Navy veteran in January 2015.  Nadel, a lawyer, took over Cooper's case and was successful in getting an approval from the VA without having to go to court. I received a call some time in May 2015 after the headstone was installed. My husband and I immediately drove out to see it.  A full military burial ceremony was held on  May 27, 2015. I have never attended a military burial ceremony and it was very moving - Honor Guards, Flag Folding, Taps and a gun salute.  What a Day!


Sunday, May 22, 2016

Finding the Butlers - My Family Who Was Enslaved by the Jesuits

If you have read the newspapers, watched TV or listened to Talk Radio in the past month, you could not miss the media coverage of the 272 people who were enslaved by the Jesuits and sold to pay the debts of Georgetown University. Although I received very little coverage in the initial article, this is my story, too.

Eastern Washington Genealogical Society appeared in a story on the front page of the New York Times on Sunday, April, 17, 2016. Two hundred and seventy-two people were reported to have been enslaved by the Jesuits of St. Mary's County, Maryland and I, Patricia Bayonne-Johnson, have ancestors who were among that group.

I first learned of my ancestors who were enslaved by the Jesuits in 2004 as I was making plans for the Hicks/Estes family reunion in New Orleans. I sent the documents I had gathered to Judy Riffel, a professional genealogist who lives in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for examination. Judy noted that Rachel Hicks, my great-grandmother's mother was born in Maryland. She knew from prior experience that Jesse Batey , a large plantation owner, purchased a bunch of slaves from Maryland; she went to the court house and pulled those records. One of the documents was an inventory for the late Jesse Batey. My third great grandparents, Nace and Biby Butler, were listed by name, age and value along with their 11 children. The most important document that she found was the bill of sales for 64 Negroes by Thomas Mulledy to Henry Johnson on behalf of Jesse Batey in 1838.

When I received the report from Ms. Riffel, I summarized her research and sent it to my aunt Onita. As she began to write the history of the family she wondered how the family became Catholic and decided to research Thomas Mulledy. Onita learned that he was a Jesuit priest who served as president of Georgetown from 1829 until 1837. She also discovered the Butlers in the Jesuit Plantation Project.

The Jesuit Plantation Project consists of plantation records that were digitized by the students in the American Studies Department of Georgetown University. They are records of White Marsh, Newtown,  St. Thomas Manor's and St. Inigoes. My Butler family was enslaved on St. Inigoes.  Those documents included an inventory, manifests, profiles of the slaves, chronology, resources a bibliography and the diary of Brother Mobberly

In 1838, Georgetown University sold 272 slaves to large plantations in Louisiana. The university folklore says all 272 slaves died and left no survivors or descendants. However, many of the slaves survived the Civil War and were emancipated in 1865. There are thousands of descendants today, many still living in Louisiana.

The Georgetown Memory Project was formed in November 2015 a few days after I was contacted by Richard Cellini, an alumnus of Georgetown University. He was seeking descendants of Nace and Biby Butler and found my blog when he did a search for them.  The goals of the GMP are: to identify the slaves sold in 1838; find their living descendants; acknowledge them as members of the Georgetown family; honor their sacrifice and legacy. I joined GMP immediately.

The Butler Team was formed in November as soon a I got back to the library.(I was in New Orleans when I was contacted). I asked the Tuesday library volunteers if they would assist me in the search for the members of my Butler family and they all agreed. The  Butler Team members are: Carol Anderson, Pat Ayers, Barbara Brazington,  Mary Holcomb, Juanita McBride, Dolly Webb and me. Janette Birch is also a member of the team; she joined when she overheard us enthusiastically talking about the project. The team has found a lot of information and there is a lot more to find.

This is the first of many posts about the 272.

Thursday, February 5, 2015

First Watch Night Service - Wed, 12/31/1862

I had never heard of First Watch Night Service until a few years ago. It is defined as a late-night Chrisitian church service held on New Year's Eve and ends at midnight. According to Wikipedia, the Watchnight service "provides the opportunity for Chrisitians to review the year that has passed and make confession, and then prepare for the year ahead by praying and resolving."  The reason that I am not of aware of the so-called First Watch Night Service is,  I am Catholic and  this ceremony is known as Midnight Mass. I have never attended a  Midnight Mass although older members of my family have participated.

The Watch Night Service, also known as Freedom Eve,  is significant in the African American community.It can be traced back to New Year's eve in 1862, where slaves and free blacks gathered in churches and homes to await the news   that the Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln had become law. On January 1, 1863 at the stroke of midnight, all slaves in the Confederate states were declared legally free.When the slaves and free blacks learned of their freedom, they prayed, shouted, sang, and thanked God.

The First Watch Night Service has been celebrated every NewYear's eve since December 31, 1862.  African Americans gather in churches to thank God for living through another year and to celebrate "how we got over."  

Source: African American Registry

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Juneteenth National Freedom Day Observation - 19 June 1865

19 June 2014

Today we celebrate Juneteenth National Freedom Day. Juneteenth commemorates the end of slavery in the United States. It is the name given to Emancipation Day also know as Freedom Day by African Americans living in Galveston, Texas in 1865 when they first learned that all slaves were free.

Officially, the end of slavery was declared on 1 January 1863 by President Lincoln but the declaration was issued on 22 September 1962.  The people in Texas didn't learn of the decalaration until June 19, 1865.

Juneteenth is celebrated all over the United States with religious services, speakers, reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, with food, dances and games.

Friday, February 28, 2014

JOSEPH LEO BAYONNE (1895-1978)

Last week, I learned something about my great-uncle, Joseph Leo Bayonne. A shaky leaf indicated that the hint was a California marriage record for Uncle Leo. I thought, "No way could this be my relative; he has never been to California." I pulled up the information and checked out the groom's parents and there were the names of my great-grandparents, Jules Bayonne and Victorine Randall. To my knowledge, Uncle Leo had never lived in any places except Louisiana which is where he was born and Alabama where lived at the time of his death.

According to the marriage license, Leo Bayonne was 35 years old, a tailor and a resident of Oakland California when he married Sarah Blanche Broussard, 32 years, a housewife and a resident of Oakland, California on August 4, 1930. It was a second marriage for both of them - Leo was divorced and Sarah was widowed. Sarah's parents were Perry Lawson and Emily Hunter... three more surnames to add to my  family tree!

Although 1930 was before my birth, I would think that this would have come up in my research of  the Bayonne family. I had just watched a webinar on Ancestry entitled, "Forward Thinking: Tracing the Children of your Ancestors and their Children." Now I am more motivated than ever to get started tracing the children of Jules and Victorine Randall Bayonne.